Health issues and challenges are becoming more complex in nature over the past few decades. The challenges arose from rapid changing landscape, globalization and diversification in human demography, pressures on natural resources and agriculture intensification which acting as vehicles of pathogen emergence in human animal and environmental interface. Approximately 60% of emerging diseases are originated from animal and of that 70 % deriving from wildlife. This complexity and interconnectedness environment of health threats giving an opportunity and awareness to address critical needs and reshaping the health management system to refocus on the interface between ecosystem health, animal health, and human health. One Health is based on the understanding that the health of humans, animals and of the environment is inextricably linked, and that promoting the well-being of all species can only be achieved through co-operation across sectors, professions, disciplines and national borders, and by promoting sustained collaboration between donor agencies and those organizations responsible for delivery. Recent effort of controlling zoonotic diseases like Ebola, Highly Pathogenic Influenza viruses (H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9), Anthrax, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) demonstrates the need of collaborative, cross-sectoral multidisciplinary approach to address and safeguard health and welfare of species at the human-animal-ecosystems interface.
One Health is not a new concept rather it’s recognized since the era of Aristotle to Zoobiquity. However, in the course of evolution in interaction between human, animal and environment, the needs of one health concept is necessarily reflecting in 21st century. In era of 21st century, human population and the global population of domestic animals and exploitation of natural resources have increased at unprecedented scale and rates. All of the risk factors for the health of people, animals and our shared environment are the direct or indirect result of environmental changes that now so vastly exceed the biological pace of adaptation by people and animals. One Health is a hopeful, adaptive approach to achieving health in a perturbed biosphere.